Apple Invents a new Under-Display technology using Optical Fibers to better capture Fingerprint Data and communicate between devices
Today the US Patent & Trademark Office published a patent application from Apple that relates to smartphones, tablet computers, laptop computers, wearable devices, standalone or wall-mounted display screens, and other devices having optical emitters, detectors, or transceivers. Instead of simply using optical emitters under the display to capture biometrics and more, Apple’s invention covers the use of optical fibers behind displays that could capture data at much higher rates and accuracy. The invention also notes that the use of optical fibers could be used to better transmit data between devices.
Apple states in their patent background that in some cases, it may be desirable to determine whether an object or user is proximate to a device, to determine the distance between an object or user and a device, or to determine a velocity or acceleration of an object or user with respect to a device.
It may also be desirable to capture a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) image of an object or user that is proximate to a device. In some cases, the 2D or 3D image may be an image of a fingerprint, a face, or a scene in a field of view (FoV).
In some cases, it may be useful to wirelessly transmit or receive information between devices. It may also be useful to acquire images or data pertaining to a device’s environment. In all of these cases, the measurements, images, or other data may be sensed or acquired optically.
Display-Adjacent Optical Emission or Reception Using Optical Fibers
Apple’s invention covers systems, devices, methods, and apparatus directed to optical sensing using optical fibers or optical fiber bundles and, in particular, to near-display optical sensing.
More specifically, Apple notes that electronic devices often include optoelectronic components for providing illumination, sensing the proximity of an object, capturing an image, and so on. In contrast to many solutions that position optoelectronic components under a display and emit or receive electromagnetic radiation through the display (which can result in optical transmission losses of 95-99%), the techniques described in Apple’s patent application use optical fibers or optical fiber bundles to route electromagnetic radiation between an optoelectronic component positioned under, partially under, or adjacent a display, to along an edge of the display (e.g., to a gap between the display and a bezel), to an area of an optically-transmissive component or surface.
The area of the optically-transmissive component or surface may be adjacent the display or near a perimeter of the display. Electromagnetic radiation may be sensed/detected in a similar manner.
Electromagnetic radiation that is emitted and detected adjacent to a display, using one or more optical fibers, may be much less attenuated than electromagnetic radiation that is emitted or detected through a display.
In various described embodiments, the optical fiber(s) can have non-linear routes; can enable sensors with different transmit/receive baselines; can be used in conjunction with an optical emitter, an optical detector, or optical transceiver; can be multiplexed, split, or combined; can be coupled with an optical path routing controller or other element that can steer the optical fiber(s); and so on.
Apple’s patent FIG. 1A below is the front side of an iPhone. In some cases, the front-facing camera #112 and/or other sensors of the iPhone may be positioned under, partially under, or adjacent the display #104, and electromagnetic radiation emitted and/or received by the sensor(s) may be routed through a gap (or gaps) adjacent the display.
An under-display or adjacent optical emitter, detector, or transceiver may also be configured as (or provide) a proximity sensor; a 2D or 3D camera (sometimes in combination with a flood illuminator or structured light source); a bio-authentication sensor (e.g., a facial recognition sensor or fingerprint sensor); an eye/gaze tracker, device tracker, or other optical tracking system; an optical communication system; and so on.
The iPhone may also include various input devices, including a virtual button #118 or other sensors integrated with a display stack positioned under the display.
In Apple’s patent FIG. 2D we’re able to see an optical fiber #242, or optical fiber bundle #244 including the optical fiber.